Doing The Light Handango

I’m getting rather brassed off with hearing the word “Handango“. Not, you understand, because I have a problem with them or their business, though they are in fact rather difficult to do business with. Nor because of any aesthetic judgements and opinions I may have about their site. Not even because of their distinctly American Corporate brand of English… no, my problem is with the word as an answer to a question.

The question to which I refer is: “suppose we develop product X, how would we sell it?” In the world of mobile applications it’s a pretty important consideration when evaluating any idea; arguably more important than “what could we build” or “hey, look at what I coded up last night”. If you can’t sell it, you can’t make money from it, and you’re out of business[0]. Unfortunately, “Handango” is not an answer to the question.

At the time of writing, Handango are proudly advertising 75,000 downloads. Let’s think about that a second; seventy five thousand different things that you might want for your device. They don’t break it down by platform unfortunately (and don’t get me started on the way they use “Symbian” as a platform – as if the average end user knew what that meant or whether they even have a Symbian phone). But let’s say that there are 10,000 applications in the Symbian section. A new application offered for sale there is, therefore, competing for attention with all those thousands of other products. There’s no way to get attention; it’s the same problem as was faced in the early days of the web – unless you promote your site, nobody knows that you’re there.

So putting your product on Handango is really just the very first step in a process of getting it to market. Where will it be advertised? Who will pay for the advertising? Who will write the copy for the adverts (and for the pages on Handango, come to that)? Too often the assumption seems to be that one puts the product on Handango and then starts leafing through the Rolls-Royce brochures whilst waiting for the cheques. In the immortal words of Helen Parr[1], “I don’t think so!”.

[0] Of course, if you’re talking open source, freeware or just-put-it-up-for-vanity-ware, this doesn’t (necessarily) apply. But you still want people to find it, right?
[1] Elastigirl, of course.

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Wibbly Wobbly WBXML

Ok, so I couldn’t think of a title that’s as wilfully obscure as the usual ones.  Whatever.

For reasons of Commerce, I need to be able to generate WBXML messages within the guts of the mighty Python/Zope engine that powers the Mobile Phone Project[0].  What, I hear you ask, the blinking flip is WBXML?  Well, if you don’t know, you probably want to keep it that way, but you did ask.

WBXML is a binary encoding of XML.  XML is, of course, a textual encoding of data… some of which may originally have been binary.  So it’s sort of an extra level of complication added to something that’s already complicated, but hey, that’s what geeks do, isn’t it?  The reason that it’s a binary encoding is that XML is bulky.  Most of the time that bulk doesn’t matter that much; I’ll trade bandwidth, memory or CPU time for explicitness any day of the week.  But if you’re trying to pack XML over a slow, laggy, prone-to-being-interrupted-by-trees-or-birds wireless link to a phone, bulk is bad.  It’s even worse if you’re trying to pack an XML Service Indication (essentially, a pushed URL) into the tiny size of a single SMS message.  Hence the binaryness.

WBXML isn’t anything as simple as, say, a gzipped version of the XML stream.  Instead, it’s a carefully rigorous specification of how individual single byte values map to either XML or text strings.  For example, the XML <SI> maps to the binary value 0x05, and <INDICATION> maps to 0x06.  But it’s clever; if the HREF attribute of the INDICATION starts with “http://&#8221;, then the whole attribute-starting-http maps to 0x0C.  If the HREF starts with “http://www&#8221; then it’s mapped to 0x0D, saving another three bytes, and so on.  The more common the string, the more likely it is to have a fixed mapping.  There’s also a neat string-table option; commonly used string can be folded into single-byte offsets into a string table (in effect, any repeated string longer than three bytes is worth string-table-izing).

This is non-trivial stuff to knock up in a hurry, so it’s just as well that there’s the libwbxml open-source library to handle it all.  That library, however, is in C, and I’m working in Python.  There appear to be no published Python binding to libwbxml, so it was time to dust off my ancient experience of #include <Python.h> and get to it.

Here’s the C code that allows a Python call to libwbxml’s xml2wbxml function:

static PyObject *wbxml_xml2wbxml(PyObject *self, PyObject *args) {
/*A WB_UTINY is an unsigned char, so we can allow conversion directly from the Python string*/
WB_UTINY *xml;
WB_UTINY *wbxml;
WB_ULONG wbxmllen;
int status;
WBXMLConvXML2WBXMLParams    params;
WB_UTINY *errstr;
PyObject *result;
 
    /* Verify and read a string arg (xml) */
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "s", &xml))
        return NULL;
 
    /* Pass that to libwbxml2 */
    params.keep_ignorable_ws = FALSE;
    params.use_strtbl = TRUE;
    params.wbxml_version = WBXML_VERSION_11;
    status = wbxml_conv_xml2wbxml(xml,&wbxml,&wbxmllen,&params);
    if(status == WBXML_OK) {
        errstr = NULL;  /*we return None to mean no error*/
    } else {
        errstr = (WB_UTINY *)wbxml_errors_string(status);
    }
 
    /* Build the return tuple of wbxml, error.
    The wbxml string is binary, so we need to convert it with a z#
    rather than a z.*/
 
    result = Py_BuildValue("(z#z)",wbxml,wbxmllen,errstr);
 
    /* Free the buffer that came back from the converter (thanks, Bob!) */
    wbxml_free((void *)wbxml);
 
    return result;
}

For details, I recommend you to the excellent on-line reference to the Python/C API (link goes directly to the section that explains conversion of values between C and Python).

[edit – removed dead link to the source for this… I don’t have it anymore, sorry!]

Right now, I don’t need to convert WBXML back to XML, so there’s no link to the reverse wbxml2xml function.  Like they say, open-source software scratches one’s own itches.  And if you did want to send the resulting SI in one or more SMS messages to a mobile, you’d also need to wrap the binary WBXML in a WSP (Wireless Session Protocol) header, which is another topic entirely[1].

[0] I suppose I should start calling this the Mobile Phone Content Project, since that’s a more accurate name.  Maybe when the tv adverts start…
[1] I do have working code to do this, so if anyone needs to wrangle WSP, feel free to drop me an email (or ask via blog comment) and I’ll share what I know.